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12 December 2013 1:00 pm ,
Vol. 342 ,
Stefan Behnisch has won awards for designing science labs and other buildings that are smart, sustainable, and...
The iconic 125-year-old Lick Observatory on Mount Hamilton near San Jose, California, is facing the threat of closure...
Recent results from the Curiosity Mars rover have helped scientists formulate a plan for the next phase of its mission...
A new, remarkably powerful drug that cripples the hepatitis C virus (HCV) came to market last week, but it sells for $...
In pretoothbrush populations, gumlines would often be marred by a thick, visible crust of calcium phosphate, food...
Evolutionary biologists have long studied how the Mexican tetra, a drab fish that lives in rivers and creeks but has...
Victorian astronomers spent countless hours laboriously charting the positions of stars in the sky. Such sky mapping,...
In an ambitious project to study 1000 years of sickness and health, researchers are excavating the graveyard of the now...
- 12 December 2013 1:00 pm , Vol. 342 , #6164
- About Us
Feeling the Heat
5 April 1999 7:30 pm
Frederick Alexander Lindemann, a German-born British physicist who made key discoveries in the study of heat, was born on 4 April 1886. At the age of 25, Lindemann and German physical chemist Walther Hermann Nernst built a novel calorimeter that, at very low temperatures, could measure specific heat--the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance 1 degree Celsius. Working at the University of Berlin, the duo confirmed Einstein's prediction, based on quantum theory, that the specific heats of solids approach zero near a temperature of absolute zero.
Lindemann also derived an eponymous formula defining the relationship between the melting point of a crystalline solid and the amplitude of the vibration of its atoms. As an airplane pilot, Lindemann validated a theory on how to recover from a tailspin. He was a scientific adviser to Winston Churchill and the British government during World War II. He died in 1957.