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17 April 2014 12:48 pm ,
Vol. 344 ,
Officials last week revealed that the U.S. contribution to ITER could cost $3.9 billion by 2034—roughly four times the...
An experimental hepatitis B drug that looked safe in animal trials tragically killed five of 15 patients in 1993. Now,...
Using the two high-quality genomes that exist for Neandertals and Denisovans, researchers find clues to gene activity...
A new report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that humanity has done little to slow...
Astronomers have discovered an Earth-sized planet in the habitable zone of a red dwarf—a star cooler than the sun—500...
Three years ago, Jennifer Francis of Rutgers University proposed that a warming Arctic was altering the behavior of the...
- 17 April 2014 12:48 pm , Vol. 344 , #6181
- About Us
Feeling the Heat
5 April 1999 7:30 pm
Frederick Alexander Lindemann, a German-born British physicist who made key discoveries in the study of heat, was born on 4 April 1886. At the age of 25, Lindemann and German physical chemist Walther Hermann Nernst built a novel calorimeter that, at very low temperatures, could measure specific heat--the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance 1 degree Celsius. Working at the University of Berlin, the duo confirmed Einstein's prediction, based on quantum theory, that the specific heats of solids approach zero near a temperature of absolute zero.
Lindemann also derived an eponymous formula defining the relationship between the melting point of a crystalline solid and the amplitude of the vibration of its atoms. As an airplane pilot, Lindemann validated a theory on how to recover from a tailspin. He was a scientific adviser to Winston Churchill and the British government during World War II. He died in 1957.