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An animal rights group known as the Nonhuman Rights Project filed lawsuits in three New York courts this week in an...
Researchers have been hot on the trail of the elusive Denisovans, a type of ancient human known only by their DNA and...
Thousands of scientists in the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) are about to lose their jobs as a result of the...
Dyslexia, a learning disability that hinders reading, hasn't been associated with deficits in vision, hearing, or...
Exotic, elusive, and dangerous, snakes have fascinated humankind for millennia. They can be hard to find, yet their...
Researchers have sequenced and analyzed the first two snake genomes, which represent two evolutionary extremes. The...
Snake venoms are remarkably complex mixtures that can stun or kill prey within minutes. But more and more researchers...
At age 30, Dutch biologist Freek Vonk has built up a respectable career as a snake scientist. But in his home country,...
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How to Tell Evolutionary Time
18 January 2002 (All day)
Evolutionary biologists use so-called molecular clocks to determine when species branched off from family trees. These evolutionary timepieces, based in part on the rate at which DNA mutates, are far less accurate than atomic clocks, however, causing some scientists to question the value of the dating technique (Science NOW 28 November 2001). Now, two evolutionary biologists say they've found a better way to estimate DNA mutation rates, at least for mammals, a result that should give new precision to evolutionary studies.
To determine the rate at which DNA mutates, researchers compare different versions of the same gene from two to several dozen species. They count genetic differences and then divide by the best guesstimate of how long ago the species diverged, calibrated in part on the fossil record. But genes mutate at different rates, since, for example, some can withstand mutations better than others. As a result, mutation rates can vary between species by 10-fold.
Dissatisfied with such wobble in the basic gears of the molecular clock, evolutionary biologists Sudhir Kumar and Sankar Subramanian decided to establish a more reliable mammalian mutation rate based on as many gene sequences as possible. They started with more than 17,200 DNA sequences, representing 5669 genes from 326 mammalian species. Some 60% were disqualified based on certain criteria--if, for example, a gene in mice was in a more mutation-prone chromosomal region than the same gene in humans, the researchers decided that gene would add too much noise to the analysis. The remaining sequences yielded a mutation rate that equaled one of the existing estimates--2.2 changes in a DNA sequence a billion bases long, per year. This rate varied by less than 10% between mammalian species, they report 15 January in the online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Other researchers were somewhat skeptical. Cutting out so many genes from the analysis and then saying the rate applies to all mammalian genes is a little unfair, says evolutionary biologist Michael Lynch of Indiana University in Bloomington. He says the results will be useful for timing some events in the evolution of mammals, however. Clearly, biologists aren't ready to give molecular clocks up--the clocks may not be Swiss, but they take a licking and keep on ticking.