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6 March 2014 1:04 pm ,
Vol. 343 ,
Magdalena Koziol, a former postdoc at Yale University, was the victim of scientific sabotage. Now, she is suing the...
Antiretroviral drugs can protect people from becoming infected by HIV. But so-called pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP...
Two studies show that eating a diet low in protein and high in carbohydrates is linked to a longer, healthier life, and...
Considered an icon of conservation science, researchers at World Wildlife Fund (WWF) headquarters in Washington, D.C.,...
The new atlas, which shows the distribution of important trace metals and other substances, is the first product of...
Early in April, the first of a fleet of environmental monitoring satellites will lift off from Europe's spaceport in...
Since 2000, U.S. government health research agencies have spent almost $1 billion on an effort to churn out thousands...
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Video: This Molecule Doesn't Horse Around
14 September 2010 5:26 pm
Molecules are nothing like horses. But if they were, they'd be a bit smarter, because they would have figured out that trotting is a colossal waste of energy. Researchers placed four different carbon-ring molecules with oxygen atoms for "legs" on a copper surface. Heat exchange propelled them forward. Two-legged molecules moved roughly the way humans walk: one leg after the other. The four-legged ones walked in much the same way, moving first the atoms on one side, then the atoms on the other—a gait known as pacing. They never trotted like a horse does. That's because, according to simulations the team reports online this month in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, moving diagonally opposite legs at the same time distorts the molecule—and thus requires much more energy than pacing. But even pacing has disadvantages: The team found that two-legged molecules were much better at moving through obstacles than were four-legged ones.
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