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17 April 2014 12:48 pm ,
Vol. 344 ,
Officials last week revealed that the U.S. contribution to ITER could cost $3.9 billion by 2034—roughly four times the...
An experimental hepatitis B drug that looked safe in animal trials tragically killed five of 15 patients in 1993. Now,...
Using the two high-quality genomes that exist for Neandertals and Denisovans, researchers find clues to gene activity...
A new report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that humanity has done little to slow...
Astronomers have discovered an Earth-sized planet in the habitable zone of a red dwarf—a star cooler than the sun—500...
Three years ago, Jennifer Francis of Rutgers University proposed that a warming Arctic was altering the behavior of the...
- 17 April 2014 12:48 pm , Vol. 344 , #6181
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NASA Rover Will Contaminate Its Samples of Mars
11 June 2012 5:04 pm
The Curiosity rover will definitely find evidence of an advanced civilization if it lands safely on Mars. That's because any rock samples the rover drills will be contaminated with bits of Teflon from the rover's machinery, NASA announced during a press teleconference today.
That problematic bit of information was buried among news that the rover is otherwise in great shape for its arrival at Mars on 6 August.
Curiosity's $2.5-billion mission includes searching for the carbon-containing molecular remains of any life that inhabited ancient Mars. The rover's Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrumentation, for instance, will study samples drilled or scooped from the martian surface. The drill assembly repeatedly bangs a drill bit into the rock to extract a sample, a procedure thoroughly tested mechanically before the drill was accepted for flight on the rover. But, it later turned out, that action also rubs bits of Teflon—the familiar polymer of nonstick fry pans made of carbon and fluorine atoms—off of two seals in the drill assembly. The bits of Teflon can then mix with the sample, which will be vaporized for analysis. The problem for the scientists is that Teflon is two-thirds carbon—the same element they are looking for on Mars.
Lab testing of a backup version of the drill uncovered the contamination problem shortly before launch of the rover and its drill last November, according to Paul Mahaffy of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. But Curiosity team members are guardedly upbeat that they can overcome it, although laboratory analysis of the problem will not be complete until the rover arrives on Mars. Mahaffy says the Teflon appears at concentrations of, at most, parts per million, roughly the same level that organic matter appears in the rocks of Earth. But lab work is showing that those levels do not endanger the operation of the drill or the rest of the sampling and analysis system. And team members can likely minimize the amount of Teflon getting into the analytical system by altering operation of the drill.
Once in SAM, Teflon causes limited problems, says Mahaffy. When the heating that drives gaseous compounds into the analytical instrumentation reaches about 600°C on its way to 1000°C, most of the Teflon decomposes. It produces mostly small, easily identified compounds of carbon and fluorine, he says. And they contaminate only a small fraction of the range of compounds expected from biologically produced carbon compounds, at least the sort remaining from earthly life. But as project manager Peter Theisinger of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, remarked in the teleconference about the whole business of going to Mars, "There are still the unknown unknowns that could get us in the end."