Scientific collaborations between the United States and India and Pakistan have received a green light in the wake of the 11 September terrorist attacks.
The U.S. government cracked down after both nations tested nuclear weapons in May 1998, requiring U.S. organizations to obtain a license before shipping civilian materials deemed to have a dual military use to more than 300 institutions (Science, 24 July 1998, p. 494 ). The so-called "entities list" was trimmed somewhat in December 1999 and again in March 2000.
The latest easing, according to Indian officials, lifts the rules for most civilian R&D organizations, including many under the Defense Research and Development Organization. It follows a 22 September decision by President George W. Bush to waive prohibitions on trade in dual-use materials. Sri Krishna Joshi, a solid state physicist and president of the Indian National Academy of Sciences, welcomed the news, calling the restrictions "totally unnecessary." A small number of agencies involved in nuclear, missile, and space programs in the two countries remain under the restrictions.